Carcinogenesis requires that a single cell or one of its descendents undergo a series of rare geneti Show more Carcinogenesis requires that a single cell or one of its descendents undergo a series of rare genetic and epigenetic changes that permanently alter the expression of at least five to eight genes. Thus it is not surprising that many cancer cells assayed in cell culture dishes were found to have a very high rate of mutagenesis. (15 points) A. What are three systems that are often defective in cancer cells whose role is to ensure the integrity of the genome? B. The increased mutation rate speeds cancer progression by increasing the likelihood that a cell will acquire additional properties that contributes to carcinogenesis. Name four of the eight typical properties of cancer cells. C. UV and ionizing radiation are known to cause cancer because they are mutagens that damage DNA. How then are the many anticancer therapies that act by damaging DNA including ionizing radiation and many drugs so effective at shrinking tumors? Show less
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