Almost all of us have fond memories of a sport-related experience. The experience might entail our first game as a spectator, our first request for a ballplayer’s autograph, or even eating our first hot dog. We may look back at having won- derful seats to watch a game, catching a foul ball in the stands, or attending a game with a special promotional giveaway. Whatever the experience, more than likely a sport facility was involved.
When people think about large sport facili- ties, they often focus on how to navigate through crowds and traffic in the shortest possible amount of time. Others might think about the sights, sounds, and smells that made an event memo- rable. Still others might have negative thoughts based on a professional team’s threats to move if not given a new facility. For smaller facilities such as health clubs, people might think about convenience and the breadth of services available.
For those managing sport facilities, the facil- ity experience is vastly different. Indeed, very few people realize what an enormous undertak- ing it is to develop and operate these facilities. For example, how much toilet paper needs to be ordered for 1,000 bathroom stalls? How many hot dogs need to be ordered if 70,000 fans will be attending a game? What happens when the facil- ity’s water pressure is interrupted? What if a major generator breaks during a sporting event? What if a storm or an environmental disaster damages (or destroys) the playing field? How do you promote a rock concert one day and a monster truck pull the next? How do you change over a facility from an ice hockey surface to a basketball surface in just three hours without ruining the ice? How do you handle disorderly or rowdy fans and customers? How do you hire and manage a part-time staff of possibly 600 ushers, concessionaires, ticket takers, and security personnel? What happens when a facility runs into financial hardships? These are just some of the questions that a facility manager has to face on a daily basis. This book was written to help highlight the broad array of responsibili- ties faced by facility managers.
the Purpose of this Book The question this book addresses is how to effec- tively manage a sport facility. Although the book focuses on sport facilities, much of the subject matter is also applicable to any number of public assembly facilities, including music theaters, auditoriums, convention centers, and high school and college arenas and stadiums. Public facilities can also include bowling alleys, health clubs, sportsplexes, park and recreation facilities, and numerous other natural and man-made environ- ments.
Written for students in sport and facility man- agement, as well as professionals already working in the field, the text provides a comprehensive knowledge base. An introductory-level discussion is provided for those who have never before stud- ied sport facility management (FM). Thus, after reading this book, beginning students will have a solid grasp of the fundamental skills in FM and will have the knowledge base to apply those skills in the real world. In-depth explanation, real-world examples, and detailed assessment of various FM issues are also provided to expand understand- ing and spur knowledge application for industry professionals. Some of the FM concerns discussed in this text are preventive maintenance, facil- ity planning, event administration, box office management, house and grounds management, systems management, marketing, finance, and personnel administration.
It should be noted that every facility and its management structure is different. Some facili- ties rely on an owner to make all decisions, from designing the building and obtaining funds to removing the trash every day. Other facilities, pri- marily larger ones, have multiple people serving in different capacities and may have a financial consultant developing the funding strategy, a construction manager working during construc- tion, a facility manager handling bookings, and an outside contracting company providing security and concession services.
viii ■ Preface
The comprehensive overview this book offers is currently not available from other texts. Most FM books focus on safety, marketing, construction, or event management. They fail to combine these important disciplines into one comprehensive text and rarely cover important topics such as the his- tory of sport facilities, the types of systems within a building, and the ways in which buildings are actually built and managed. This text covers FM for a sport facility in a comprehensive manner that includes both educational references and professional industry insight.
The need for a comprehensive sport FM text has been highlighted over the past several years with the push to build large high-technology sport facilities that are more complex to operate and manage than in the past. Similarly, fitness, recre- ation, and sport facilities have fueled significant career opportunities that present unique issues such as how to develop a facility business plan including feasibility studies; what finance vehicle is most effective for raising necessary capital; how to control costs through preventive maintenance; how to schedule and book event dates; and how to market luxury and premium seating to maximize revenue. Through reading and understanding this text, a current or future sport facility manager will be in a better position to respond effectively to new challenges.
How this text Is Organized After presenting an overview of sport facilities through the ages, the text focuses on what is involved in FM and on the manager’s primary responsibility: getting employees at the facility to accomplish their jobs. The text walks the reader through the basics, from developing a facility through running a facility. It then turns to issues involved in running programs and personnel. Lastly, the text examines what is required to pro- duce a high-quality event at a sport facility. The book is organized into five parts.
Part I of the book is an introduction to the sport facility industry. A brief historical perspective helps highlight how sport facilities have evolved over the years. Chapter 2 addresses the role of facility managers and the various concerns they face. Since facility managers must accomplish goals primarily through employees, chapter 3 deals with the art of effective managerial com- munication and leadership. Chapter 3 also covers
how managers utilize and manage employees as well as other human resources issues.
Part II analyzes the complex process of decid- ing to build and finance a facility. Various topics such as the validity of feasibility studies, how to select a site, and how to handle environmental impact issues are discussed. This part of the text continues with an in-depth analysis of the initial facility business planning process, a discussion of how to obtain financial and political support, and an examination of the various types of facilities and fields that can be built. This part highlights the facility building process, including analysis of how to develop a site plan to maximize the available resources. Part II ends with a thorough analysis of the construction process to build a facility.
After a facility is built, it has to be operated. Part III covers the operations side of facilities (both internal and external) and such topics as mainte- nance and housekeeping. Systems management is covered, with emphasis on major systems such as facility infrastructure, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), energy management, waste management, and all exterior systems.
Part IV analyzes the FM process by looking at some of the critical administrative areas that a facility manager supervises. This part covers some of the nuts and bolts associated with FM, such as marketing, finance, legal issues, risk management, and the entire administrative process.
Part V examines the actual running of a sport facility during large events. The primary concern for any facility is safety and this section starts with analyzing the risk management issues associated with managing crowds and disasters. The section ends with a step-by-step process of how to first attract events and then put on those events.
How to Use this text Besides the educational material contained within the discussions of the various topics, the text is organized to clearly convey concepts through several strategies. Each chapter lists specific objectives and includes a chapter overview as well as a chapter summary and several discus- sion questions and activities. Among the most important elements in each chapter are sections titled “Facility Focus” and “Behind the Scenes.” The facility focus sections provide information about particular facilities, including important
Preface ■ ix
facts and strategies used by the facility to succeed. The behind-the-scenes material presents unique concerns and strategies that can make a facility manager more successful. All these elements combine to help weave the material into a full and coherent picture of the subject.
Updates to this Edition I was very touched by the support I received after writing the first edition of this text. Possibly the best response was from facility managers them- selves who highlighted that the text was the first book they had read that was able to capture the essence of what it meant to be a facility manager. When I was asked how I could improve on a text used at more than 100 universities, I had to think outside the proverbial box. When I teach sport facility management, I normally teach half the class from the textbook and the remainder of class time is spent working on projects, listening to guest speakers, and visiting facilities. Since it is impossible to visit a facility in a textbook, I tried to incorporate the next best thing— expanding the facility focus sections and adding a new section with industry experts introducing each chapter.
Each chapter contains at least one facility focus, which has been expanded to give the reader not
just statistics but also a sense of what issues the facility faces. Several major new facilities were built since the last edition. Thus, I have incorpo- rated some of them into the text, such as the new Yankee Stadium and Cowboys Stadium. Each chapter has an introduction written by an indus- try executive highlighting what he or she does on a daily basis and how material in that specific chapter fits into his career. Whether a sport archi- tect is discussing how he plans to build a facility or a major facility executive is highlighting how she motivates her employees, these introductions highlight the text’s value for those working in the industry. They also encourage the reader to think about how theory can be applied in the workplace.
One of the key benefits of this second edition is the instructor orientation adopted by both the author and publisher. While some material was made available to past textbook adopters, the new version will be enhanced by PowerPoint slides for each chapter; a 20-minute video highlighting the building of a sport facility; an instructor’s guide that provides innovative teaching options; and a large test bank of true or false, multiple choice, and essay exam questions available to all textbook adopters. These ancillary materials are available at www.HumanKinetics.com/ManagingSportFa- cilities.
Note to Students When I started my academic career at the University of New Haven in 2004, it never occurred to me how much planning, intelligence, and perfecting it took to keep each spectator safe and run a facility. On a facility tour of Shea Stadium in New York, Professor Fried and the stadium staff explained several aspects of the park that would seem trivial to any fan. A strategically placed railing allowed a more efficient crowd flow into the gates, which subsequently allowed all bags and persons to be inspected quickly and thoroughly. The stadium’s rules and regulations were announced over the PA system and reinforced with mounted signs and placards. All of these minutiae were in effect before a single spectator even went through the turnstile.
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