The abstract

Institutional Affiliation

Abstract

The abstract (in block format) begins on the line following the Abstract heading. is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most important elements of the paper. Nothing should appear in the abstract that is not included in the body of the paper. Word limits for abstracts are set by individual journals. Most journals have word limits for abstracts between 150 and 250 words. All numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words. The abstract (in block format) begins on the line following the Abstract heading. This is an example. This is an example of what 150 words looks like. This is an example of what 150 words looks like. This is an example of what 150 words looks like. This is an example of what 150 words looks like. This is an example of what 150 words looks like.

Title of Paper

The introduction of the paper begins here. Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, abstract, body of the document, and references. The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3). Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on a new page. The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centered on the first line below the running head. The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line following the paper title. Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the relative importance of sections. For example, many empirical research articles utilize Methods, Results, Discussion, and References headings. In turn, the Method section often has subheadings of Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure. Main headings (when the paper has either one or two levels of headings) use centered, boldface, uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Method, Results). Subheadings (when the paper has two levels of headings) use flush left, boldface, uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Participants , Apparatus).

Text citations. Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. This is to give proper credit to the ideas and words of others. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of the publication appears in parenthesis following the identification of the authors, e.g., Eby (2001). When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons, e.g. (Eby and Mitchell, 2001; Passerallo, Pearson, & Brock, 2000). When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first authors’ surname and “et al.” are used.

When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are cited every time. If there are six or more authors to be cited, use the first authors’ surname and “et al.” the first and each subsequent time it is cited. When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. A longer quote of 40 or more words should appear (without quotes) in block format with each line indented five spaces from the left margin.

The references section begins on a new page. The heading is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the references heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. Most reference entries have three components:

  1. Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors.
  2. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” in parentheses following the authors.
  3. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book).

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Degelman, D. (2009). APA style essentials. Retrieved from http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.aspx?doc_id=796

Garrity, K., & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168-172. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1990.tb00405.x

Hien, D., & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at the drug abuse-maternal aggression link. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 503-522. Retrieved from http://jiv.sagepub.com/

Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb00088.x

Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved from http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm

Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Shea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New York: Oxford University Press.

Template created by:

Nelson L. Eby – Graduate student of Computer Fraud Investigation

Columbian School of Arts and Sciences

The George Washington University

nelsoneby@hotmail.com

In collaboration with Dr. Douglas Degelman, Professor of Psychology, Vanguard University of Southern California

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