Annotated bibliography

First article: Celine, T. M., & Antony, J. (2014). A study on mental disorders: 5-year retrospective study. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 3(1), 12.

· The researchers in this study found that mood disorders, is the most occurring mental health problem, which is a potential next leading form of mental health disorder. The mood disorder is a behavioral disorder that is associated to and caused by psychoactive substance use.

Second article: Brunner, F., Dinger, U., Komo-Lang, M., Friederich, H. C., Schauenburg, H., Herzog, W., & Nikendei, C. (2019). Psychosomatic–psychotherapeutic treatment in an evening clinic: a qualitative examination of patients’ expectations and experiences. International journal of mental health systems, 13(1), 69.

· The researchers, including the authors of the University of Heidelberg patients suffering from mental disorders, require more intensified medication therapy, to manage various mental disorders, to help the individuals live normal lives. They used a qualitative research study.

Third article: Atif, N., Bibi, A., Nisar, A., Zulfiqar, S., Ahmed, I., LeMasters, K., … & Rahman, A. (2019). Delivering maternal mental health through peer volunteers: a 5-year report. International journal of mental health systems, 13(1), 1-8.

· The researchers found that, the evidence-based psychological interventions are best when delivered by non-specialist health workers, to help mothers during their postpartum period to prevent any issues of post-partum mental problems.

Forth article: Narasimhan, L., Gopikumar, V., Jayakumar, V., Bunders, J., & Regeer, B. (2019). Responsive mental health systems to address the poverty, homelessness and mental illness nexus: The Banyan experience from India. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13(1), 1-10.

· The researchers in the study found that there are factors, such as poverty, and homelessness leads to mental health problems, due to stress. The Banyan, which is a non-profit making organization found out that most individuals who suffers from mental health problems, have extremely low incomes hence they are poor.

Fifth article: Settipani, C. A., Hawke, L. D., Cleverley, K., Chaim, G., Cheung, A., Mehra, K., & Henderson, J. (2019). Key attributes of integrated community-based youth service hubs for mental health: a scoping review. International journal of mental health systems, 13(1), 52.

· The researchers of the study found that the integrated youth service hubs could have a significant potential to effective address the issues of mental health problems in the society. The youth service hubs, help in implementation and evaluation of various strategies to manage mental health problems.

Sixth article Chaulagain, A., Kunwar, A., Watts, S., Guerrero, A. P., & Skokauskas, N. (2019). Child and adolescent mental health problems in Nepal: a scoping review. International journal of mental health systems, 13(1), 53.

· The researchers and the authors of the study found that approximately, 10-20 % of children, including the adolescents have mental problems. In most cases, the age affected is between ages 14 to 25. Therefore, there is importance in conducting a review on children, including adolescents, to manage issues of mental health.

Integrated review


Many people suffer from mental health problems, which are also termed as mental illnesses. The mental illnesses have a negative impact on people’s lives in that it affects people’s daily living. There are many different kinds of mental disorders, which also have different presentations. The disorders are generally characterized by the combination of abnormalities in perceptions, thoughts, behaviors, emotions, and relationships with others. The serious burden of mental disorders continues to grow, with significant impacts on people’s health, which includes social, psychological, and physical. These mental health illnesses have negative consequences in various environments, such as economic, political and even environmental.

Key words: mental illnesses, abnormalities, mental disorders, psychological

Final project

I. Introduction

a) Purpose, aims, and objectives of the integrated review

I. Purpose

The purpose of this review is to create an understanding about the various mental health disorders, including effective ways of managing the mental health disorders.

II. Aim

The main aim of this review is to investigate the effects of mental health disorders to people’s health, and effective ways of managing the disorders.

III. Objectives

· The data will be extracted from various research articles.

· Data will also be extracted from evidence-based practices, concerning management of mental disorders.

· The extracted data will be synthesized to enhance establishments of correlations between, mental health disorders, and their management strategies.

b) Topic: Mental health

The topic is ‘Teen Mental Health First Aid for years 7–9: a description of the program and an initial evaluation.’ This topic is the focus of the review, because there has been a high prevalence of mental health disorders among the human population of the United States of America.

There are a large range of mental health conditions, which in most cases affect a person’s mood, behavior and thinking. Mental health problems have a wide range of causes (Jorm, 2000). Factors that can potentially lead to mental health problems are such as social isolation, trauma in childhood or childhood abuse, bereavement, unemployment, homelessness, drug abuse, and domestic violence (Jorm, 2000). Physical causes can be factors such as head injury or neurological condition such as epilepsy, which affects behavior and mood.

People with mental illnesses cannot think rationally and logically. Decision-making is always affected when social workers diagnose the patients and need to make appropriate referrals. Some of these patients have been disowned by their relatives, which makes it complicated for social workers to handle referrals for these patients. Another issue is with dual diagnosis, for example, some patients may be having substance abuse dependence and schizophrenia. This makes it difficult to make referrals since the two conditions are managed by different agencies. In addition, a social worker is expected to provide professional care to the clients with mental health disorders (Banks, 2012. Some of the mental health settings to do have good facilities that will allow the provision of individualized care with dignity and respect to the client. This may conflict with social worker’s beliefs and values that all humans should be treated with dignity and respect regardless of their mental status (Francis, 2014). Human rights and social justice issues often arise and should be addressed by the advanced social workers when working with mental health clients.

Erikson’s theory states that, throughout a lifetime, individuals go through stages that expose them to psychosocial problems. The completion of a crisis at each stage prepares one to move to another stage and inability to resolve a crisis during a given phase will lead to recurrence of that crisis. Levinson’s theory comprised adulthood stages that shape particular action that leads to the next stage. (Demick, 2016). Important concepts to Levinson’s model are the stable period whereby one makes essential choices in life while the transitional period is the final part of the phase and the start of another stage

c) Research question

· What are the effects of mental health disorders to human lives?

· What is the level of awareness regarding the adverse effects of mental health disorders among the people?

· What are the attitudes of people towards smoking?

· How do social and environmental factors lead to mental health disorders?

· What are some of the strategies that are essential in management of mental health disorder?

· Which are the most prevalent types of mental health disorders that affect the people?

d) Variables

The variables, which interests me in this study are:

i) The independent variables in this study are;

· Individual characteristics, which will include; age, religion, level of education, parents’ marital status, and primary care givers.

· Social factors

· Environmental factors

ii) The intervening variables are:

· Knowledge of the mental health problems and their adverse effects on health.

· Attitudes of individuals in relation to the mental health disorders.

The existing dependent variable is the prevalence of mental health disorders.

e) Background

Mental health disorders as some of the leading causes deaths of the people who suffer from mental health problems. Statistics indicate that in the 20th century, there have been 100 million deaths caused by diseases related to mental health problems. Due to lack of effective strategies, the people suffering from mental disorders find it difficult to live normal lives. Therefore, unless urgent action is taken to prevent and manage the mental health disorders, they will lead to a negative impact in many areas of the human population, such as the economy, political, and environmental. The estimated prevalence, of mental health disorders, among the people aged fifteen years and above is approximately 18% across the United States of America.

Mental problems are caused by, a range of various factors, which are in most cases an association of biological, environmental and psychological. Typical environmental factors are such as childhood abuse, social abuse, unemployment, drug, and alcohol abuse and domestic violence. In the case of biological factors, mental problems are linked to the unusual functioning of the pathways of the nerve cell, which normally connect various the regions of the brain. The nerve cells within the brain normally undertake communication by the use of chemicals, which hare called the neurotransmitters (Causes of Mental Illness, 2003). Therefore, it is important to manage these chemicals using medicines, utilizing psychotherapy, or other effective procedures. This is because the interventions can help the brain to function more efficiently.

Another cause of mental disorders is due to genetics. Mental problems normally run in families, which means that those people with a particular family member who has a mental problem, are likely to have or develop a mental illness too. The condition is normally passed on in families through genes. In some cases, a person can inherit the genes but does not actually develop the illness. Another causal factor is infection. There are particular infections, which have been linked to brain damage, which leads to mental disorders. For instance, there is a condition known as the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder, which is normally associated with streptococcus bacteria (Causes of Mental Illness, 2003). The condition has been linked to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorders, which also includes other serious mental health problems in children.

II. Literature review

a) Keywords and combinations

Key words such as mental health, mental conditions and psychological problems were effective for the initial research, the mental health and mental disorders were the most reliable, relevant and effective. The key words and combinations effectively acted as basic providers of most useful and relevant results, because they were the primary sources of literature, including information.

b) Databases

The databases, such as the World Health Organization and the international journal of mental health systems, these were the chosen databases because, they have information concerning mental health issues. The specific characteristics that makes these particular databases, to be most reliable, are that they readily provide extensive information; they are freely accessible and are easily to navigate.

c) Inclusion and exclusion

In the cases of inclusion criteria, I used the typical terms, such as mental health in combination with terms, such as research, and evidence-based research on mental health disorders. In the cases of exclusion criteria, I avoided using insignificant terms not related to mental health disorders.

III. Methodology Analysis

a) Methodology

Data was obtained from the registers, which were maintained in the department of medical records. The outcomes measured, are such as the patients’ stigmatizing attitudes, and anxiety disorders.

b) Analysis

The data was analyzed using the mixed models, for continuous, including variables of the binary outcomes. The models, involved random effect for the school clusters, to learn the correlation of the students with the school activities, such as curriculum.

c) Gaps in the literature

There are certain gaps in the research literature, such as the time of the research activities.

d) Inconsistencies in the literature

The is an existing inconsistency in the research study, in that the study location and time are inconsistent.

IV. Synthesis and Interpretation

a) Evidence table

Research article Report citation Design Method Sample Data collection Data analysis Validity and reliability
First research article Celine, M., & Antony, (2014). RetrospectiveStudy design Medical records Patients admitted in medical college hosp. Direct observation Z test Reliable and valid
Second research article Brunner, F., Dinger, U., Komo-Lang, & Nikendei, Retrospective Uncontrolled trial 8 students(age 12-15 years) Random Statisticalanalysis Reliable
Third research article Atif, N., Bibi, & Rahman, A. (2019). Retrospective Mixed methods Women Interviews Review Valid
Forth research article Narasimhan,., & Regeer, B. (2019). Retrospective Quantitative Banyans Online research Statistical Valid
Fifth research article Settipani, C. Henderson, J. (2019). Retrospective Review approach The youth Interviews Statistical Reliable and valid
Sixth research article Chaulagain, A., Kunwar, & Skokauskas, N. (2019). Retrospective Review approach Children and adolescents Online research Statistical Valid and reliable
b) Comparison and contrast of study findings

The research findings included all necessary aspects of mental health management strategies, including the outcomes.

c) Research strategies

There are strategies used in the research articles, which provide significant importance to health care, such as the indication of various forms of management of mental illnesses. The research designs used are both effective and reliable, because they provided appropriate and significant outcomes. The statistical analysis, which were employed, provided effective choices for the research questions posed.

d) Ethical issues

In the research articles, the researchers requested for permissions prior to undertaking the research activities. The participants, were given written consents, which they were to sign before engaging in the research.

e) Patterns and trends in the research

There exists particular patterns and trends in the research, in that in the studies, the researchers involve a sample of individuals who are at a risk, or known to have mental health illnesses.

f) The secondary data

The secondary data were utilized, through review of various research articles from the internet. The sourced were all objective, because they relied on the evidenced based practices, including resources.

g) Synthesis of the findings

In the research articles, the major hypothesis of the research studies were, the typical causes of the mental health disorders, the health outcomes, and the corresponding mental health disorders management,

h) Utilizing the secondary data

Utilizing the existing secondary data, as the best alternative for the researchers’ available original research would have been actually a feasible option. It would have definitely provided more reliable and extensive information concerning the mental health conditions, in the sample study. The secondary data would have provided more advanced strategies of dealing with the mental health problems, hence enhance easy management of mental disorders by in many populations.

i) Ethical concerns in the literature

In the research articles, there are no particular ethical concerns, which are present. The researchers requested for permissions prior to the research study. Therefore, there are no conflicts of interest between the study sponsors and the researchers, because all the research activities were within scope.

V. Conclusion

a) Strengths

The studies provides assessments of the participates concerning their mental. Therefore, the assessment are very useful because they provide reliable outcomes, including results.

b) Limitations

Some research articles are limited to some databases, especially for convenience, hence there are relevant studies, which are left out, hence are not identified.

c) Findings

The findings in the research articles demonstrates, that the mental health problems, are actually very common in many individuals , ranging from the children, the adolescents, adults and even the elderly. It is essential to note that, in the studies, some findings suggest that, poverty has an association with mental health problems, therefore it hard to reach accurate conclusions on the real or true prevalence of the mental health problems.

d) Implications

There are implications of this research, such as the new rising causes of mental health problems such as mood changes, which cause serious mental health illnesses. It may have significant influence in my topic, especially in overall large picture of the healthcare research, because it is then important to look for more information about the rising cause of mental health illnesses.


Banks, S. (2012). Principles into practice: professionalism and codes of ethics. Ethics and Values in Social Work, 102-125. doi:10.1007/978-0-230-37592-5_5

Causes of Mental Illness. (2003, February 7). Retrieved from

Demick, J. (2016). Psychobiography as a Means to Understanding Langer’s Contributions to Psychological Science. In Critical Mindfulness (pp. 101-127). Springer, Cham.

Francis, A. P. (Ed.). (2014). Social Work in Mental Health: Areas of Practice, Challenges, and Way Forward. SAGE Publications India.

Jorm, A. F. (2000). Mental health literacy: Public knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(5), 396-401.

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