Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Week 4

Comment by Tamyra Hoff: Please don’t include your reference in the paper. A reference goes in the reference list at the end of the paper

Article one: Strezova, A., O’Neill, S., O’Callaghan, C., Perry, A., Liu, J., & Eden, J. (2017). Cultural issues in menopause: an exploratory qualitative study of Macedonian women in Australia. Menopause, 24(3), 308-315.

Article two: Utian, W. H., & Maamari, R. (2014). Attitudes and approaches to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a focus group qualitative study. Climacteric, 17(1), 29-36.

With a formal paper, you need to start a paper with an introduction. The introduction is where you describe the practice problem and why this is an issue. You also state the purpose of the paper

Background Study

According to Strezova et al. (2017), their article had various cultural issues in menopause. The paper had to answer the question concerning women’s menopause on productivity, economic, and life quality outcomes. The study’s objective was to explore the experience of menopause amid Macedonian females existing in Australia. The research included responses and attitudes towards complementary and hormone therapy. The study also considered midlife issues such as relationships and psyco-sexual. The purpose of the study was to investigate menopausal severity and symptoms on health-related costs, healthcare utilization, work impairments, and life quality.

On the other hand, Utian & Maamari (2014) stated that the study was to give a solution concerning the question on approaches and attitudes to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal females. The study’s objective was to evaluate women’s coping techniques and postmenopausal vaginal atrophy impact through international focus groups. Additionally, the study purposes of considering the effects of women’s coping strategies and postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. You were able to describe some of the elements of the background but you did not describe them all. To earn full points you need to clearly describe the research problem, the significance to nursing, the purpose of the research, the objective and the research question and this should be for both studies.

How the articles support the nursing practice issue

PICOT question: What are the clinical manifestations of menopause? This is not a PICOT question

After menopause, a woman shows various manifestations, one of which is different perceptions towards illness such as vaginal atrophy. The article’s research on various cultural and health factors that influence womens’ attitudes in menopause. For instance, mood swings and hot flashes have an association with negative attitudes concerning menopause. Utian & Maamari (2014) suggest that using the individual-based method to personal therapy may inspire patients to converse vaginal atrophy disesase with their support providers and search for action. In my case, patient therapy would help women identify clinical menopause manifestations and regulate them. Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Week 4


The first article used qualitative methodology based on seven nondirective and unstructured group discussions. Participants were only Macedonians and used their native language during the study. On the other hand, the second article conducted focus groups. The groups had five to three postmenopausal women with past vaginal atrophy symptoms but had not sought treatment. Women recruitment took place in various sources such as word of mouth, placing online adverts, and contact relative to existing consumer panels.

In the first article, the unstructured discussions allowed for different communication modes and social interaction to create a good rapport. Again, the study recruited natural social groups that met anywhere each group felt comfortable and at home. Hence, participants would give their views willingly and happily to facilitate accurate data collection. However, the study used a small sample size that makes it hard to identify if the outcome is the factual finding. Again, various women were only comfortable approaching Macedonian doctors that would have interfered with the researcher’s conclusions due to lack of openness.

In the second article, the researcher held sessions in a traditional setting to encourage free expression and creativity. The settings allowed females to speak intimately and personally concerning their matters by boosting interaction among the group. The study also offers an opportunity for indirect questioning and topic exploration to obtain greater perceptions into women’s attitudes concerning VA in a setting favorable to idea interchanges. However, there were small sample sizes and power lack for statistical analysis. Good discussion of the method used for both studies.

Results of study

The first article shows that participants had no information concerning menopause, and their HT knowledge was precious. During the research, some females felt comfortable by only conversing with Macedonian doctors. Deeply religious partakers said that their belief through the life phase would similarly refer to a priest as a doctor. Some women reported symptoms ease after revisiting their homeland. The study found a frequent theme that Macedonian husbands regard their wives otherwise following menopause and at times treat them as non-sexual. Harsh male attitudes towards menopause women increase the risk of divorce, extramarital affairs, and domestic violence. Comment by Tamyra Hoff: You need to be sure to spell this out the first time used.

The second article shows that though some women established pride and strength in their undertakings, they described feeling insignificant, distressed, unnoticed, and androgynous in their life phase. There was a disconnection between women’s physical and mental self-sense. Menopause symptoms that concerned participants were weight gain and hot flushes. Vaginal discharge was moderately bothersome. Vaginal atrophy symptoms include burning and itching or dry outside and inside. Participants considered vaginal atrophy symptoms as being more severe than skin elasticity loss and disrupted sleep. For instance, limited spontaneity and reinforced decreased libido affect relationships.

Additionally, the disease affects women’s emotions by decreasing their feminist feelings, reminding them of their age, and increasing embarrassment. The study shows that women adapt to vaginal dryness by wearing breathable fabrics, embracing showering less often, and avoiding harsh or drying soaps. The focus group participants used lubricants as a treatment tactic. The non-prescription treatments comprised sexual activity brands such as creams, moisturizers, and oils. The research also cited increased foreplay for women who are comfortable conversing with their partners and sexually active. However, women with lower libido chose abstinence.

The study’s focus groups led to a growing work body displaying menopause women are unaware that vaginal atrophy treatment options are a health condition. Based on the participants’ engagement with vaginal health, comfort level, and personality, HCPs may use various women’s insights in the study to inspire appropriate LET use and enhance patient’s life quality. Good discussion

Ethical considerations Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Week 4

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