PSYC-FP4700 Assessment 1: Basics of Research and Statistics, Frequency Distributions, Percentiles, and Graphical Representations

Complete the following problems within this Word document. Do not submit other files. Show your work for problem sets that require calculations. Ensure that your answer to each problem is clearly visible. You may want to highlight your answer or use a different type color to set it apart.

Problem Set 1.1: Identifying Variables (Dependent, Independent, Quasi-Independent)
Criterion:
Identify dependent and independent variables.

A researcher tests whether cocaine use increases impulsive behavior in a sample of cocaine-dependent and cocaine-inexperienced mice.
Independent Variable: __

Quasi-Independent Variable: __

Dependent Variable: __

A professor tests whether students perform better on a multiple-choice or fill-in-the-blank test format.
Independent Variable: __

Quasi-Independent Variable: __

Dependent Variable: __

A researcher tests whether smoking by parents influences children’s attitudes toward smoking behavior.
Independent Variable: __

Quasi-Independent Variable: __

Dependent Variable: __

A social scientist tests whether attitudes toward morality differ based on political affiliation (Democrat or Republican).
Independent Variable: __

Quasi-Independent Variable: __

Dependent Variable: __

A cultural researcher tests whether individuals from different cultures share or differ in the belief that dreams have meaning.
Independent Variable: __

Quasi-Independent Variable: __

Dependent Variable: __

Problem Set 1.2: Understanding Sample and Population
Criterion:
Describe the relationship between population and sample.

Instructions:
Read the following and answer the question.

Height and educational attainment: Szklarska, Koziel, Bielicki, and Malina (2007) hypothesized that taller young men are more likely to move up the scale of educational attainment compared with shorter individuals from the same social background. They recruited 91,373 nineteen-year-old men to participate in the study.

Do these participants most likely represent a sample or population? Explain.


Problem Set 1.3: SPSS Enter Data
Criterion:
Enter and display data in SPSS.

Instructions:
Use the supplied data to complete Steps 1–8.

Data:
Five social media users spent the following number of minutes viewing Twitter:
15.21, 46.18, 12.45, 65.486, 26.852.

Steps:

Open SPSS.
Click New DataSet in the New Files area and then click Open.
Click the Variable View tab at the bottom.
In the cell under Name, type Minutes.
The variable of Minutes is continuous. In the Decimals column, type
Click on the Data View tab at the bottom of the screen.
Enter data in the column labeled
Take a screenshot of your data in SPSS and paste it below.

Problem Set 1.4.a: Grouped or Ungrouped
Criterion:
Explain the identification of types of data.

Instruction:
Fill in the table below. For each example, state whether it is grouped or ungrouped and why.

Example Grouped or Ungrouped Why
The time (in seconds) it takes 100 children to complete a cognitive skills game.

The number of single mothers with 1, 2, 3, or 4 children.

The number of teenagers who have experimented with smoking (yes, no).

The age (in years) of freshman students in a local college.

Problem Set 1.4.b: Understanding Descriptive and Interferential Statistics
Criterion:
Explain the identification of types of data.

Instructions:
Read the following and answer the question.

Gun ownership in the United States: Data from Gallup polls over a 40-year period show how gun ownership in the United States has changed. The results are described in the table below, with the percentage of Americans who own guns given in each of 5 decades:

Year %
1972 43
1982 42
1992 48
2002 40
2012 43
Source: Reported at http://www.gallup.com/poll/1645/Guns.aspx

Are the percentages reported here an example of descriptive statistics or interferential statistics? _________________________________________________
Based on the percentages given in the table, how has gun ownership in the United States changed over the past 40 years? __________________________________________________________
Problem Set 1.5: Reading a Chart
Criterion:
Locate data on a chart.

Instructions:
Read the following and answer the questions.

Participant Characteristics Count
Type Token
Sex
Women
Men

Unknown

24,541
23,617

479

878,261
751,188

927

Total 1,630,376

Do men or women in this sample speak more words overall (Token Count)? ___
Do men or women in this sample speak more different words (Type Count)? ___

Problem Set 1.6: Frequencies and Percents
Criterion:
Identify frequencies and percents.

Instructions:
State whether a cumulative frequency, relative frequency, relative percent, cumulative relative frequency, or cumulative percent is most appropriate for describing the following situations. For cumulative distributions, indicate whether these should be summarized from the top down or from the bottom up.

Data:

The frequency of businesses with at least 20 employees: _
The frequency of college students with less than a 3.0 GPA: _

The percentage of women completing 1, 2, 3, or 4 tasks simultaneously: _
The proportion of pregnancies performed in public or private hospitals: _

The percentage of alcoholics with more than 2 years of substance abuse: __
Problem Set 1.7: Understanding Percentages
Criterion:
Identify distribution type and number of people.

Instructions:
Read the following and answer the questions.

Perceptions of same-sex marriage: In June 2016, a CBS News poll asked a sample of adults worldwide whether it should be legal or not legal for same-sex couples to marry (reported at http://www.pollingreport.com). The opinions of adults worldwide were as follows: 58%, legal; 33%, not legal; and 9%, unsure/no answer.

What type of distribution is this? ______________
Knowing that 1,280 adults were polled nationwide, how many Americans polled felt that same-sex couples should be allowed to legally marry? ______________
Problem Set 1.8: Create an Ascending Frequency Table in SPSS
Criterion:
Create an ascending frequency table in SPSS.

Instructions:
Complete the following steps.

Data:
The number of clicks per hour in forty different tweets: 1, 0, 8, 5, 2, 1, 8, 2, 0, 2, 6, 8, 7, 2, 0, 2, 7, 4, 6, 9, 3, 2, 9, 6, 9, 7, 5, 8, 8, 8, 9, 6, 5, 4, 8, 4, 5, 8, 5, 7

Open SPSS.
Click New Dataset in the New Files area and then click Open.
Click on the Variable View
In the cell under Name, type Clicks.
The variable of Clicks is discrete, so enter 0 in the Decimals
Click on the Data View tab at the bottom of the screen.
Enter all 40 numbers from from the dataset of number of clicks per hour in the column labeled Clicks.
In the Toolbar, click Analyze, select Descriptive Statistics, and then select Frequencies.
Select Clicks and then click Arrow to send it over to the right side of the table.
Click OK. Copy and paste the ascending values frequency table into the Word document.
Go back to Data View, click Analyze, select Descriptive Statistics, and then select Frequencies.
Note
: Your answers to this problem set should be two separate SPSS outputs.
Save your Clicks data to use in the next two problems.

Problem Set 1.9: Construct a Bar Graph in SPSS
Criterion:
Construct a bar graph in SPSS.

Instructions:
The Clicks data from
Problem Set 1.10
is discrete. Complete the following steps to create a bar chart to examine the data:

Go back to your SPSS Statistics Data Editor where your Clicks data should be displayed.
In the Toolbar, click Graphs, select Legacy Dialogs, and then select Bar.
Click Simple, then select Define. Select Clicks and then click Arrow to send it over to the Category Axis
Click OK. Copy and paste the bar graph below. (Hint: You might need to use Copy Special and click the .jpeg)
Optional to answer: What is the shape of the distribution?
Problem Set 1.10: Construct a Pie Chart in SPSS
Criterion:
Construct a pie chart in SPSS.

Instructions:
Complete the following steps to create a pie chart to examine the attendance data from
Problem Set 1.10
.

Go back to your SPSS Statistics Data Editor where your clicks data should be displayed.
Select Data View, click Graphs, select Legacy Dialogs, and then select Pie.
Click Summaries for groups of case and then select Define. Select Clicks and then click Arrow to send it over to the Define Slices By
Click OK. Copy and paste the pie graph below.

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Benefits of our college essay writing service

  • 80+ disciplines

    Buy an essay in any subject you find difficult—we’ll have a specialist in it ready

  • 4-hour deadlines

    Ask for help with your most urgent short tasks—we can complete them in 4 hours!

  • Free revision

    Get your paper revised for free if it doesn’t meet your instructions.

  • 24/7 support

    Contact us anytime if you need help with your essay

  • Custom formatting

    APA, MLA, Chicago—we can use any formatting style you need.

  • Plagiarism check

    Get a paper that’s fully original and checked for plagiarism

What the numbers say?

  • 527
    writers active
  • 9.5 out of 10
    current average quality score
  • 98.40%
    of orders delivered on time
error: