How Does the Trait Approach Work?

Leadership seventh edition

To Laurel, Lisa, Madison, Scott, and Kallie

Leadership Theory and practice • seventh edition

Peter g.Northouse Western Michigan University

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Copyright  2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Northouse, Peter Guy.

Leadershop : theory and practice/Peter Northouse, Western Michigan University.—Seventh Edition.

pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-4833-1753-3 (pbk. : alk. paper)

  1. Leadership. 2. Leadership—Case studies. I. Title.

HM1261.N67 2015 303.3′4—dc23 2014044695 This book is printed on acid-free paper.

15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Brief Contents

Preface xvii

  1. Introduction 1 2. Trait Approach 19 3. Skills Approach 43 4. Behavioral Approach 71 5. Situational Approach 93 6. Path–Goal Theory 115 7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory 137 8. Transformational Leadership 161 9. Authentic Leadership 195 10. Servant Leadership 225 11. Adaptive Leadership 257 12. Psychodynamic Approach 295 13. Leadership Ethics 329 14. Team Leadership 363 15. Gender and Leadership 397 16. Culture and Leadership 427

Author Index 467 Subject index 477 About the Author 491 About the Contributors 493

Detailed Contents

Preface xvii

  1. Introduction 1 Leadership Defined 2

Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership 5 Def inition and Components 6

Leadership Described 7 Trait Versus Process Leadership 7 Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership 8 Leadership and Power 10 Leadership and Coercion 12 Leadership and Management 13

Plan of the Book 15 Summary 16 References 17

  1. Trait Approach 19 Description 19

Intelligence 23 Self-Conf idence 24 Determination 24 Integrity 25 Sociability 26 Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership 26 Emotional Intelligence 27

How Does the Trait Approach Work? 29 Strengths 30 Criticisms 30

Application 32 Case Studies 32

Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research 33 Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround 34 Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank 36

Leadership Instrument 37 Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ) 38

Summary 40 References 41

  1. Skills Approach 43 Description 43

Three-Skill Approach 44 Technical Skill 44 Human Skill 44 Conceptual Skill 45 Summary of the Three-Skill Approach 46

Skills Model 47 Competencies 48 Individual Attributes 52 Leadership Outcomes 53 Career Experiences 54 Environmental Influences 55 Summary of the Skills Model 56

How Does the Skills Approach Work? 56 Strengths 57 Criticisms 58 Application 59 Case Studies 60

Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team 60 Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams 62 Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe 64

Leadership Instrument 66 Skills Inventory 67

Summary 69 References 70

  1. Behavioral Approach 71 Description 71

The Ohio State Studies 72 The University of Michigan Studies 73 Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid 74

Authority–Compliance (9,1) 75

Country-Club Management (1,9) 75 Impoverished Management (1,1) 75 Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) 76 Team Management (9,9) 77

Paternalism/Maternalism 77 Opportunism 77

How Does the Behavioral Approach Work? 78 Strengths 80 Criticisms 81 Application 81 Case Studies 82

Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First 83 Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up 84 Case 4.3 We Are Family 85

Leadership Instrument 87 Leadership Behavior Questionnaire 88

Summary 90 References 91

  1. Situational Approach 93 Description 93

Leadership Styles 94 Development Levels 96

How Does the Situational Approach Work? 97 Strengths 98 Criticisms 99 Application 102 Case Studies 103

Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels 103 Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening? 105 Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across 107

Leadership Instrument 108 Situational Leadership Questionnaire: Sample Items 109

Summary 112 References 113

  1. Path–Goal Theory 115 Description 115

Leader Behaviors 117 Directive Leadership 117 Supportive Leadership 117 Participative Leadership 118 Achievement-Oriented Leadership 118

Follower Characteristics 118 Task Characteristics 119

How Does Path–Goal Theory Work? 120 Strengths 122 Criticisms 123 Application 124 Case Studies 125

Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors 126 Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others 128 Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra 129

Leadership Instrument 132 Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire 133

Summary 135 References 136

  1. Leader–Member Exchange Theory 137 Description 137

Early Studies 137 Later Studies 140 Leadership Making 142

How Does LMX Theory Work? 144 Strengths 145 Criticisms 146 Application 148 Case Studies 149

Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments 150 Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair 151 Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities 152

Leadership Instrument 154 LMX 7 Questionnaire 155

Summary 157 References 158

  1. Transformational Leadership 161 Description 161

Transformational Leadership Def ined 162 Transformational Leadership and Charisma 164 A Model of Transformational Leadership 166

Transformational Leadership Factors 167 Transactional Leadership Factors 171 Nonleadership Factor 172

Other Transformational Perspectives 172 Bennis and Nanus 172 Kouzes and Posner 174

How Does the Transformational Approach Work? 175 Strengths 176 Criticisms 178 Application 180 Case Studies 181

Case 8.1 The Vision Failed 181 Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership 183 Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center 185

Leadership Instrument 187 Summary 190 References 191

  1. Authentic Leadership 195 Description 195

Authentic Leadership Def ined 196 Approaches to Authentic Leadership 197

Practical Approach 197 Theoretical Approach 200

How Does Authentic Leadership Work? 205 Strengths 206 Criticisms 207 Applications 208 Case Studies 209

Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader? 210 Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire 212 Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady 214

Leadership Instrument 217 Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire 218

Summary 220 References 221

  1. Servant Leadership 225 Description 225

Servant Leadership Def ined 226 Historical Basis of Servant Leadership 226 Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader 227 Building a Theory About Servant Leadership 229

Model of Servant Leadership 231 Antecedent Conditions 231 Servant Leader Behaviors 233 Outcomes 236 Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership 238

How Does Servant Leadership Work? 238 Strengths 239

Criticisms 240 Application 241 Case Studies 242

Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble 243 Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor 244 Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight 247

Leadership Instrument 249 Servant Leadership Questionnaire 250

Summary 253 References 254

  1. Adaptive Leadership 257 Description 257

Adaptive Leadership Def ined 258 A Model of Adaptive Leadership 260

Situational Challenges 261 Leader Behaviors 263 Adaptive Work 273

How Does Adaptive Leadership Work? 274 Strengths 275 Criticisms 276 Application 277 Case Studies 279

Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness 279

Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus 281 Case 11.3 Redskins No More 283

Leadership Instrument 286 Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire 287

Summary 292 References 293

  1. Psychodynamic Approach 295 Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries and Alicia Cheak Description 295 The Clinical Paradigm 296 History of the Psychodynamic Approach 297 Key Concepts and Dynamics Within the

Psychodynamic Approach 301 1. Focus on the Inner Theatre 301 2. Focus on the Leader-Follower

Relationships 302 3. Focus on the Shadow Side of Leadership 305

How Does the Psychodynamic Approach Work? 305 Strengths 306

Criticisms 307 Application 308

Group Coaching 309 Case Studies 313

Case 12.1 Dealing With Passive-Aggressives 313 Case 12.2 The Fear of Success 314 Case 12.3 Helping a Bipolar Leader 315

Leadership Instrument 317 The Leadership Archetype

Questionnaire (Abridged Version) 318 Summary 324 References 324

  1. Leadership Ethics 329 Description 329

Ethics Def ined 330 Level 1. Preconventional Morality 331 Level 2. Conventional Morality 332 Level 3. Postconventional Morality 332

Ethical Theories 333 Centrality of Ethics to Leadership 336 Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership 337 Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership 338 The Dark Side of Leadership 339 Principles of Ethical Leadership 341

Ethical Leaders Respect Others 341 Ethical Leaders Serve Others 342 Ethical Leaders Are Just 344 Ethical Leaders Are Honest 345 Ethical Leaders Build Community 346

Strengths 347 Criticisms 348 Application 349 Case Studies 349

Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant 350 Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe? 351 Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal 352

Leadership Instrument 355 Perceived Leader Integrity Scale (PLIS) 356

Summary 359 References 360

  1. Team Leadership 363 Susan E. Kogler Hill Description 363

Team Leadership Model 366 Team Effectiveness 367 Leadership Decisions 372 Leadership Actions 377

How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? 381 Strengths 382 Criticisms 383 Application 384 Case Studies 385

Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work? 385 Case 14.2 They Dominated the Conversation 386 Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper 387

Leadership Instrument 389 Team Excellence and Collaborative

Team Leader Questionnaire 391 Summary 393 References 393

  1. Gender and Leadership 397 Crystal L. Hoyt and Stefanie Simon Description 397

The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth 398 Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth 398 Understanding the Labyrinth 399

Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness 401

Navigating the Labyrinth 406 Strengths 409 Criticisms 410 Application 411 Case Studies 411

Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling” 412 Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility 413 Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status 414

Leadership Instrument 415 The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test 416

Summary 419 References 420

  1. Culture and Leadership 427 Description 427

Culture Def ined 428 Related Concepts 428

Ethnocentrism 428 Prejudice 429

Dimensions of Culture 430 Uncertainty Avoidance 431 Power Distance 432 Institutional Collectivism 432 In-Group Collectivism 432 Gender Egalitarianism 433 Assertiveness 433 Future Orientation 433 Performance Orientation 434 Humane Orientation 434

Clusters of World Cultures 434 Characteristics of Clusters 436

Anglo 437 Confucian Asia 437 Eastern Europe 437 Germanic Europe 437 Latin America 438 Latin Europe 438 Middle East 438 Nordic Europe 439 Southern Asia 439 Sub-Saharan Africa 439

Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters 439 Eastern Europe Leadership Profile 441 Latin America Leadership Profile 441 Latin Europe Leadership Profile 441 Confucian Asia Leadership Profile 443 Nordic Europe Leadership Profile 443 Anglo Leadership Profile 444 Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile 445 Southern Asia Leadership Profile 445 Germanic Europe Leadership Profile 446 Middle East Leadership Profile 446

Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes 448

Strengths 449 Criticisms 450 Application 451 Case Studies 452

Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace 452 Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing 454 Case 16.3 Whose Hispanic Center Is It? 456

Leadership Instrument 458 Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire 459

Summary 464 References 465

Author Index 467 Subject index 477

About the Author 491

About the Contributors 493

xvii

Preface

This seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the objective of bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each theoretical approach can be applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.

NEW TO THIS EDITION

New to this volume is a chapter on adaptive leadership, which examines the nature of adaptive leadership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The chapter presents a definition, a model, and the latest research and applica- tions of this emerging approach to leadership. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of the adaptive leadership approach are examined, and a ques- tionnaire to help readers assess their own levels of adaptive leadership is provided. Three case studies illustrating adaptive leadership are presented at the end of the chapter.

This volume also presents an entirely new chapter on psychodynamic leader- ship written by a leading expert in the field, Manfred F. R. Kets De Vries, and Alicia Cheak. Like the other chapters, this chapter provides a theoreti- cal explanation of psychodynamic leadership, applications, cases studies, and an assessment instrument.

This edition also includes an expanded discussion of the dark side of leader- ship and psuedotransformational leadership and the negative uses and abuses of leadership. New research has been added throughout the book as

xvIII Leadership Theory and pracTice

well as many new case studies and examples that help students apply leader- ship concepts to contemporary settings.

This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and every- day applications for many leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to practice it more effectively.

SPEcIal FEaTurES

Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.

• Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then practice.

• Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach under consideration, and assists the reader in determin- ing the relative merits of each approach.

• Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the prac- tical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings.

• Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers to interpret the case.

• A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader apply the approach to his or her own leadership style or setting.

• Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more meaningful.

Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive, understandable, and practical.

preface xix

auDIENcE

This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational psychol- ogy, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and military science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an over- view text within MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing education, in-service training, and other leadership-development programs.

Instructor Teaching Site

SAGE edge for Instructors, a password-protected instructor resource site, supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students. The test banks, which have been expanded for this edition, include multiple-choice and true/false questions to test comprehension, as well as essay questions that ask students to apply the material. An electronic test bank, compatible with PCs and Macs through Diploma software, is also available. Chapter-specific resources include PowerPoint slides, study and discussion questions, suggested exer- cises, full-text journal articles, and video and audio links. General resources include course-long projects, sample syllabi, film resources, and case notes. Printable PDF versions of the questionnaires from the text are included for instructors to print and distribute for classroom use. A course cartridge includes assets found on the Instructor Teaching Site and the Student Study Site, as well as a bonus quiz for each chapter in the book—all in an easy-to- upload package. Go to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the com- panion site.

Student Study Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment. Mobile-friendly eFlashcards and practice quizzes strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts and allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material. A customized online action plan includes

xx Leadership Theory and pracTice

tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience. Learning objec- tives, multimedia links, discussion questions, and SAGE journal articles help students study and reinforce the most important material. Students can go to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the site.

Media Icons

Icons appearing at the bottom of the page will direct you to online media such as videos, audio links, journal articles, and reference articles that cor- respond with key chapter concepts. Visit the Student Study Site at edge. sagepub.com/northouse7e to access this media.

IcONS

northouse on Leadership

reference article

Video

audio

saGe Journal article

xxi

acknowledgments

Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Nicole, Abbie, MaryAnn, Liz, Katie, and Lauren) who have contributed significantly to the quality of this edition and ensured its suc- cess. For their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank copy editor Melinda Masson, and senior project editor Libby Lar- son. In her own unique way, each of these people made valuable contribu- tions to the seventh edition.

For comprehensive reviews of the seventh edition, I would like to thank the following reviewers:

Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville

Mel Albin, Excelsior College

Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University

Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University

Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University

Dianne Burns, University of Manchester

Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University

Steven Bryant, Drury University

Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University

David Conrad, Augsburg College

Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

xxII Leadership Theory and pracTice

Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing

S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University

Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama

Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University

Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine

Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University

Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University

Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville

Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College

David Lees, University of Derby

David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Carol McMillan, New School University

Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University

Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe

Keeok Park, University of La Verne

Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth

Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque

Casey Rae, George Fox University

Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology

Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge

Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)

Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University

Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

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