Engagement and motivation are closely related. Engagement can be defined as the degree of curiosity, attention, passion, optimism, and interest that students display when they are learning. Student motivation, on the other hand, is the student desire or willingness to take part in the learning process. Both engagement and motivation are critical in students’ performance. Student engagement is vital for active learning. But it depends on the level of motivation the students have to learn and progress in class. In simple terms, students who are highly motivated try their best to be engaged in the classroom (Funda, 2017). Therefore, knowing learners’ motivation level is significant for active engagement in the classroom. A teacher can determine students’ motivation levels by doing the following: developing student-centered classroom assessment, taking time to work individually with a student, allowing students to monitor their progress, and determining students’ perception of the class.
Individual experiences, culture, language development, and disabilities affect a student’s intrinsic motivation and the ability to initiate and maintain engagement in the classroom. Intrinsic motivation can be defined as the behaviors or acts that is not driven by external rewards. In other words, the motivation to do something comes from within. Individual experiences can push a student to work harder. Cultural beliefs can also drive a student towards success. Language development also influences intrinsic motivation. When a student identifies his/her language needs and determines why he/she needs to learn the language, the student will push him/herself to meet his/her language needs. Besides that, when a student has a disability (mild or moderate), he/she will work at a constant optimal level towards meaningful goals (Santos-Longhurst, 2019). Other factors such as curiosity, competition, and control can also influence intrinsic motivation.
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