Distinguish between different patterns of development

Essay: Argument

English Composition : Essay: Argument

Lesson 8 Overview

If you’re a student of civil

engineering, you may be

assigned to write reports in

favor of particular

construction techniques or

materials. As a student in

health care services, you

might have to present your

opinion on scheduling, staff organization, or the approach to public

relations. If you’re planning on law school, your education will revolve

around mastering the art of clearly communicating a point of view. Even

if you merely want to write a letter to the editor, you have to know how to

present an effective argument.

That’s why you need to understand not only how to appraise and

criticize an argument, but also create one of your own. Mastering the art

of argument is a challenge that’s not only worthwhile, but necessary in

today’s world. Additionally, it’s sometimes important to be able to refute

someone else’s logic and present effective evidence for your own side.

English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 1© 2019 Penn Foster Inc.

Exam objectives:

• Use prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing to write formal, college-

level essays

• Distinguish between different patterns of development

• Apply an appropriate pattern of development to a specific purpose and

audience

• Write effective thesis statements

• Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail,

supporting evidence, and transitions

• Employ responsible research methods to locate appropriate secondary

sources

• Use American Psychological Association (APA) citation and

documentation style to quote, paraphrase, and summarize secondary

source material and to reference secondary source material correctly

and appropriately

• Apply the conventions of standard written American English to produce

correct, well-written essays

8.1 Use techniques of drafting, evaluating, and creating a sound written argument Argument

READING ASSIGNMENT

Argument (lessons.pennfoster.edu/savi/351361//content/index.html#/)

Essay: Argument

READING ASSIGNMENT

Your project must be submitted as a Word document (.docx, .doc)*. Your project

English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 2© 2019 Penn Foster Inc.

http://lessons.pennfoster.edu/savi/351361//content/index.html#/

will be individually graded by your instructor and therefore may take up to five to seven days to grade. Be sure that each of your files contains the following information:

Your name Your student ID number The exam number Your email address

To submit your graded project, follow these steps:

Log in to your student portal. Click on Take Exam next to the lesson you’re working on. Find the exam number for your project at the top of the Project Upload page. Follow the instructions provided to complete your exam.

Be sure to keep a backup copy of any files you submit to the school!

Argument

People argue all the time—over what movie to see, what to have for

dinner, whom to vote for. People generally have strong opinions, and

many don’t hesitate to express them. Your friend doesn’t want to see

the same movie you do because he doesn’t like gory horror. Your

partner wants to eat at a restaurant that serves healthy food. Your

coworker won’t vote for any candidate who doesn’t support universal

healthcare.

Your argument essay is an amplified version of those types of

arguments you have with family, friends, and coworkers each day. The

difference is that you’ll be conducting research and using the

information you find to explain a problem and then provide a solution.

English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 3© 2019 Penn Foster Inc.

The argument essay is 1,600–1,800 words and must incorporate a

minimum of four secondary sources.

There’s no graded prewriting assignment for your argument essay.

Assignment Objectives

Use prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing to write a formal,

college-level essay.

Distinguish among different patterns of development.

Apply an appropriate pattern of development to a specific purpose

and audience.

Write an effective thesis statement.

Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail,

supporting evidence, and transitions.

Employ responsible research methods to locate appropriate

secondary sources.

Quote, paraphrase, and summarize secondary source material

correctly and appropriately.

Use APA (American Psychological Association) citation and

documentation style to reference secondary source material

correctly and appropriately.

Apply the conventions of standard written American English to

produce a correct, well-written essay.

Topic

Choose one of the following topics. Each topic focuses on a current

English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 4© 2019 Penn Foster Inc.

problem that many students face.

The high cost of college or student loan debt

The lack of proper nutrition

Low minimum wage

You may narrow the focus of your topic as you see fit.

Purpose and Audience

The purpose of your essay is to identify, define, and analyze the

problem, and then provide a solution to address it. You’ll use the third-

person point of view.

Your audience is made up of your fellow Penn Foster classmates. Many

will agree with you, while others will disagree. You need to present

evidence to support your analysis and solution, and convince your

audience through the strength of your argument and the feasibility of

your solution, to side with you.

Research Requirement

You’re required to use a minimum of four secondary sources in your

essay. Use the Research Writing and Citation and Documentation

webinar, Journal Entry 16, and the Argument Essay Research

Worksheet to help start your research and organize your essay.

The required secondary sources are

At least two articles from Penn Foster’s digital library database,

English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 5© 2019 Penn Foster Inc.

Gale Academic OneFile Select

At least one nonprofit or government organization (online or print).

Look for website domains .org, .edu, and .gov.

One source that you choose.

Remember that all sources, no matter where they come from, should be

evaluated for accuracy and validity. You may use more than four

sources, but you should avoid using more than six. Borrowing too much

from too many sources will overwhelm your voice in your essay and

negatively affect your grade. It could also lead to plagiarism.

Process

  1. Once you’ve chosen your topic, read through the Argument Essay

slideshow and watch the Argument Essay Instructions video. You

should also complete the Argument Essay Worksheet. This doesn’t

need to be turned in, but you should find it helpful.

  1. You should develop your thesis statement, choose a method of

organization, create an outline or graphic organizer, and begin

drafting your essay.

As you draft your essay, ensure that you’re incorporating your sources

accurately and responsibly. Remember to include the sources you use

in your essay in your list of references.

You’ll be using APA citation and documentation style to give credit to

your sources.

  1. Begin with an introduction that gives a broad overview of your topic.

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End this introduction with a thesis statement. Your thesis statement

must make your argument and name three supporting reasons.

These reasons must be named in the same order they’re discussed

in the body paragraphs.

  1. Each body paragraph must describe one reason, with the exception

of the last body paragraph before the conclusion; this paragraph

must consider your opposition.

  1. End with a conclusion that reinforces your thesis statement and

names your three reasons.

Rubric

Argument Essay

Traits of Good Writing Review “Writing a Paper Using Sources” for a complete explanation of the rating you earned for each trait as well as references you can study to improve your writing skills.

Skill Realized

Skill not Developing

Skill Emerging

Not Shown

Ideas & Content The writer provided a clear thesis statement and had a clear stance on one side of the issue. There is a clear argument provided with appropriate supporting details and evidence.

25 23 21 19 17 12 0

Organization There is a clear introduction with a thesis, body, and conclusion, with body paragraphs incorporating other patterns of development coherently.

20 18 17 16 14 12 0

Incorporation of Source Material The writer used the correct required sources. The writer used APA format to incorporate secondary source material accurately and responsibly. The writer used signal phrases, parenthetical citation, and provided a list of works cited.

15 13 11 10 8 6 0

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Voice The writer interacts with the assigned audience using appropriate, consistent point of view, tone, and evidence. The writer maintains a clear stance on the topic.

10 9 8 7 6 4 0

Word Choice The writer makes correct verb and word choices, defines any terms that may be unfamiliar, and conveys a clear message.

10 9 8 7 6 4 0

Grammar & Sentences The writer used correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure. The essay was free of any typographical errors.

10 9 8 7 6 4 0

Format The writer meets the required length (1,600–1,800 words) and uses a standard font and margins. All of the required header information is present.

10 9 8 7 6 4 0

English Composition (v4) : Lesson 8 : Page 8© 2019 Penn Foster Inc.

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