Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following nonexperimental designs:

A minimum of 150 words each question and References (questions #1 – 6) KEEP QUESTION WITH ANSWER EACH QUESTIONS NEED TO HAVE A SCHOLARY SOURCE with a Hyperlink

  1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following nonexperimental designs:


· naturalistic observations

· phenomenological studies

· case studies

· archival studies

If you were asked to use one of these designs in a study next week, which nonexperimental design would you select and why?

  1. Discuss when a naturalistic observational study would be the most appropriate design to select. Provide examples.
  2. A study once found that, for any given year, there was a positive correlation between ice cream consumption and the crime rate (during the summer months). If ice cream consumption was high for a given year, the crime rate was also high; if consumption was low, the crime rate was also low. What can explain this phenomenon?
  3. With a correlational design, why should we be cautious in drawing causal conclusions?

Suggestion: Thinking about your research topic for your proposal in the capstone, state the hypothesis for your research. Discuss the steps you took in developing your hypothesis. How did you ensure your hypothesis is well written and articulate?

  1. Compare and contrast the following terms:

· test-retest reliability with inter-rater reliability.

· content validity with both predictive validity and construct validity.

· internal validity with external validity.

Can a test be reliable without being valid? Can a test be valid without being reliable? Explain.

  1. What components differentiate experiments from the non-experimental methods discussed in Topics 2 and 3? How do experiments do a better job of assessing causality?

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