Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics

Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.

Field, A. P. (2018). (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.


Research Methods and Surveys

Data collection is described as a process for gathering and measuring information on variables of interest (Jovancic, 2019). The data is analyzed to help researchers answer questions and test theories. The results of various research studies help to learn more about the phenomena under observation. There are two collection types used to obtain data, referred to as quantitative and qualitative methods. Kleck, Tark and Bellows (2006) conducted a study that revealed 75 percent of criminal justice researchers used a multivariate statistic to draw and implication in their research. “All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness” (2 Timothy 3:16, New International Version).

Quantitative Research

Quantitative research collection is gathered by conducting interviews and questionnaires. Survey research is a reference used to describe quantitative research methods. Mathematical designs developed from this type of research is more reliable than qualitative research. Quantitative analysis is performed by utilizing structured interviews that seek to answer questions about who, when, where, what and how many? The questions are specified and structured in a set of questions with nothing additional (Lune & Berg, 2017). Closed-ended questions are formulated into surveys and questionnaires before being presented to the participants. The structured approach makes the answers easily transformed into numbers, graphs, and tables (Jovancic, 2019).

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is descriptive and not as easily measured as quantitative. The open-ended data collection is performed through surveys and interview questions used to gain insight into the participants’ thoughts and behaviors (Jovanicic, 2019). The format includes face-to-face interviews that seek to establish a rapport with participants. It beneficial because it gains trust and more willingness to cooperate with the research study. Although the method is not practical with large sample groups, telephone interviews are faster and less expensive than face-to-face. Response rates may not be as high because people will not be as receptive to cold calling, or they may not have the willingness to complete a random survey. Computer-assisted interviews are simulated like personal interviews. Instead of participants completing paper questionnaires, the questions are answered in a computerized format utilizing a computer or tablet. The advantage of the responses is categorized and coded quickly.

Criminal justice researchers may include both types of data gathering methods, which consist of qualitative or quantitative design. Both models are as useful as the other depending on what is under experiment. Theory development and hypothesis testing is sometimes a combined method a researcher wants to examine (Lofland, 1984). The format will result in a mix-method design that combines both types of research methods. It results in a single-study design developed to test a theory and hypothesis and serves to cross-check each way (Lofland, 1984).

        Conclusively, each research method gathers data using a survey method to prove or disprove the research.  Some ways are more costly or convenient, while others are more involved with seeing things from the participants’ vantage point.  Criminal justice research methods can combine quantitative and qualitative designs that can create a mixed approach to survey the participants.  

Proverbs 25:3 states, “As the heavens are high and the earth is deep, so the hearts of kings are unsearchable.”


Jovancic, N. (2019). Data collection methods for obtaining quantitative and qualitative data. Leadquizzes. Retrieved from

Kleck, G., Tark, J. & Bellows, J.J. (2006). What methods are most frequently used in research in criminology and criminal justice? Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(2), 147-152.

Lune, H. & Berg, B.L. (2017). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (9th ed.). Long Beach, CA: Pearson.

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