Week 6 Discussion ReplyTop of Form

Please respond to the following student’s post regarding the discussion below.

· In order to ensure optimal database performance, the logical and physical design should consider the user requirements thoroughly. Suppose you have been hired to transform a conceptual model into a logical model for a sales database. Describe the specific steps that you must perform in order to appropriately construct the database model. For each step mentioned, speculate the risks that might present themselves and how you would avoid or mitigate those risks.

· Suggest at least three activities that are required in the physical design process of a database to ensure adequate physical storage and data access. Analyze why user, security groups, and role definitions are essential to maintain the integrity of the database.

Student “J.M.” Responded with the following:

Steps required transforming a conceptual model into a logical model for a sales database

Converting the Logical model for a database from a theoretical model is a critical phase of designing a database. Several steps are necessary for transforming the conceptual model into a logical model for a sales database.

Step 1: Determining database purpose- Identifying the use of the database is essential so as have a clear road map on how the system will function. The risk involved in this step is mainly for complex databases for larger organizations. For a sales database having a clear purpose is good because it helps to focus on the goals (Coronel 10). A complex mission can affect decision making.

Step 2: Gathering required information-This step involves finding information necessary for the database. For instance, in this case of constructing a sales database, the information needed will include order records, customers, suppliers, and the staff that will use the database — listing the data in boxes, including details for this database such as customers’ name, addresses, telephone numbers, etc. Creating logical inventories in this step is a critical step. Thus it can result in error generations such as mistaking the details necessary (Hingorani, Dexter and Nicholas 149). For instance, the products recorded wrongly. The best way to eliminate such errors is to involve relevant people, such as staff by asking for ideas from them.

Step 3: Dividing information into tables and turning them into columns – The step involves choosing entries and subjects for the databases. For example, for a sales database, some of the significant entries will include products, orders, and suppliers, among others. Also, at this step, it is crucial to specify the key for the tables. For instance, Order ID, Product ID, or Customers ID is among the keys to identify. The critical risk in this stage is confusion, especially if the company has a broader range of products (Hingorani, Dexter, and Nicholas 149). To be sure, one has to keen on the process to avoid repeating or creating wrong information. Store information in the most straightforward form is essential. Avoid using people’s names because names are not unique.

Step 4: Setting up table relationships and analyzing errors- This step involves identifying ways to bring the information in the tables together. Use table information to determine how the tables will relate, for example, order, product, customer, destination, date, price, and quantity (Coronel 22). After that, it is essential to analyze errors that can affect the process of generating a physical model.

In the physical design process, critical activities such as training employees on how to use the system are fundamental. Employees need training and education on how they will use the system to avoid error generation after launching it. Additionally, employees also have to be educated on protecting the database system to prevent it from third-party threats. Therefore, threat and vulnerability education is essential (Hingorani, Dexter, and Nicholas 151). The users of the system have to protect their credentials for the practical storage of the data. Lastly, before fully launching the model, there needs to be a transition period for transferring all the data into the new database. Hence, there is a need for testing and trial if the database will serve its purpose accordingly.

Coronel, Carlos, and Steven Morris. Database systems: design, implementation, & management.

Cengage Learning, 2016.

Hingorani, Kamal, Dexter Gittens, and Nicholas Edwards. “REINFORCING DATABASE


NORMALIZATION TOGETHER FOR DESIGNING ROBUST DATABASES.” Issues in Information Systems 18.1 (2017): 148-155.

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