Cylindropuntia wolfie (cactus)

You will need to draw graphs for questions 1, 2 and 4 using MS Excel. You can use the following link for help – https://www.workzone.com/blog/how-to-make-a-graph-in-excel/

1.Cylindropuntia wolfii (cactus)

There are five regional high-elevation points in the vast desert of Sonoran, USA. Each high point is inhabited by a population of Cylindropuntia wolfii. The chart below shows the frequency of the anthocyanin gene (that produces purple flower color) allele from each population over the last 12 generations.

Generation

Pop 1

Pop 2

Pop 3

Pop 4

Pop 5

1

0.02

0.88

0.03

0.06

0.64

2

0.03

0.89

0.34

0.64

0.71

3

0.037

0.9

0.4

0.76

0.75

4

0.25

0.9

0.45

0.87

0.78

5

0.46

0.9

0.64

0.9

0.82

6

0.5

0.9

0.8

0.9

0.9

7

0.6

0.9

0.85

0.9

0.9

8

0.65

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

9

0.7

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

10

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

11

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

12

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

a.Draw the graph for above data. Explain which migration model (unidirectional or island model) is being followed and how you could identify this from the graph.

According to the graph which one do you suspect to be the mainland population that sends out emigrants?
2.Flower piercers (Diglossa)

Diglossa is a genus of flowerpiercers in the family Thraupidae. They form a group known as flowerpiercer birds because of their habit of piercing the base of flowers to access nectar. Over the last 2 million years, 5 new islands have appeared off the coast of Andaman. Each island became inhabited by a population of flower piercers. The chart below shows the

frequency of the cyx+allele from each population over the last 10 generations.

Generation

Pop 1

Pop 2

Pop 3

Pop4

Pop 5

1

0.02

0.3

0.4

0.66

0.9

2

0.03

0.34

0.44

0.6

0.87

3

0.24

0.4

0.46

0.58

0.76

4

0.33

0.45

0.47

0.55

0.7

5

0.46

0.48

0.48

0.52

0.6

6

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

7

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

8

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

9

0.51

0.51

0.51

0.51

0.51

10

0.51

0.51

0.51

0.51

0.51

Draw the graph for above data. Explain which migration model (unidirectional or island) is being followed and how you could identify this from the graph.

Based on the above two graphs determine which genus (Diglossaor Cylindropuntia) has a faster migration rate and explain how you found this.

  1. Sea anemones– Generations 1-10

A large population of sea anemoneslived undisturbed in the ocean shores of Channel Islands for several decades. Due to climate change, an unexpectedly large tsunami has transported larva of sea anemone to five nearby Islands: Chunky, Jiivi, Carta, Shells, and Natura. The chart below shows the frequency of the ni+ allele from each population over the first 15 generations.

Generation

Chunky

Jiivi

Carta

Shells

Natura

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.43

0.5

2

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.44

0.5

3

0.2

0.64

0.48

0.45

0.44

4

0.3

0.65

0.47

0.49

0.36

5

0.46

0.68

0.46

0.52

0.33

6

0.5

0.7

0.39

0.61

0.1

7

0.55

0.77

0.37

0.67

0.09

8

0.58

0.79

0.34

0.72

0.08

9

0.67

0.80

0.28

0.82

0.07

10

0.78

0.81

0.25

0.9

0.03

11

0.8

0.83

0.23

0.92

0

12

0.82

0.85

0.21

1

0

13

0.85

0.87

0.1

1

0

14

0.9

1

0.03

1

0

15

1

1

0

1

0

Look at the Generations 1-15 graph of the seagrass.

a.Explain which evolutionary force is responsible for the variation in the ni+ allele frequencies of populations (drift or migration) and how you came to this conclusion.

b.In which populations has the ni+ allele reached fixation?

c.What does it mean for an allele to reach fixation?

Imagine if the Generations 1-15 sea anemone population sizes were significantly larger in Jiivi Island. Assuming all other conditions remained the same, how would the increase in population sizes change the timing of this population reaching fixation for one allele? (Describe this change in general terms. You do not need to calculate any specific numbers.)

  1. Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

Due to wildfires, the population of koalas was reduced to 15 individuals at the end of the 20th century. Since then, their population size has rebounded to over 10,000. What is the most likely long-term effect of wildfires on the koala population?

The population has high allelic diversity
The individuals are genetically similar
The new population has allele frequencies similar to the original population as the koala pop size has recovered
The population is more likely to survive disease
Mutations are more frequent in new population

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