Contrast leadership and power.

Activity #6

  1. Contrast leadership and power.
  2. What can managers do to manage conflicts effectively in their organizations?

. This is to be in narrative form. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to organizational behavior.

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F o u r t e e n t h E d i t i o n

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University

Timothy A. Judge The Ohio State University

Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Dubai • Singapore • Hong Kong Tokyo • Seoul • Taipei • New Delhi • Cape Town • Sao Paulo • Mexico City • Madrid • Amsterdam • Munich • Paris • Milan

G l o b a l E d i t i o n

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Vice President, Business Publishing: Donna Battista Director of Portfolio Management: Stephanie Wall Portfolio Manager: Kris Ellis-Levy Editorial Assistant: Hannah Lamarre Portfolio Manager, Global Edition: Steven Jackson Associate Acquisitions Editor, Global Edition: Ishita Sinha Associate Project Editor, Global Edition: Paromita Banerjee Vice President, Product Marketing: Roxanne McCarley Director of Strategic Marketing: Brad Parkins Strategic Marketing Manager: Deborah Strickland Product Marketer: Becky Brown Field Marketing Manager: Lenny Ann Kucenski Product Marketing Assistant: Jessica Quazza Vice President, Production and Digital Studio, Arts and

Business: Etain O’Dea Director of Production, Business: Jeff Holcomb Managing Producer, Business: Ashley Santora

Content Producer, Global Edition: Nitin Shankar Senior Manufacturing Controller, Global Edition:

Trudy Kimber Content Producer: Claudia Fernandes Operations Specialist: Carol Melville Creative Director: Blair Brown Manager, Learning Tools: Brian Surette Content Developer, Learning Tools: Lindsey Sloan Managing Producer, Digital Studio, Arts and Business:

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Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on the appropriate page within the text.

PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and PEARSON MYLAB MANAGEMENT® are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Educa- tion, Inc. or its affiliates in the U.S. and/or other countries.

Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England

and Associated Companies throughout the world

Visit us on the World Wide Web at:

© Pearson Education Limited 2018

The rights of Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accor- dance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14th Edition, ISBN 978-0-13- 452385-9 by Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, published by Pearson Education © 2018.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS.

All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorse- ment of this book by such owners.

ISBN 10: 1-292-22141-0 ISBN 13: 978-1-292-22141-0

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Typeset in Times LT Pro by Cenveo Publisher Services Printed and bound by Vivar, Malaysia

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This book is dedicated to our friends and colleagues in The Organizational Behavior Teaching Society

who, through their teaching, research and commitment to the leading process, have significantly

improved the ability of students to understand and apply OB concepts.

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PART 1 An Introduction 31

Chapter 1 Welcome to the World of OB 31

PART 2 Individual Differences 47

Chapter 2 Attitudes 47 Chapter 3 Emotions 60 Chapter 4 Personality Factors 77 Chapter 5 Perceptual Processes 95 Chapter 6 Valuing Diversity 113 Chapter 7 Basic Motivation 130 Chapter 8 Applied Motivation 150

PART 3 Groups in Organizations 166

Chapter 9 Communication 166 Chapter 10 Basics of Group Behavior 182 Chapter 11 From Groups to Teams 200 Chapter 12 Characteristics of Leaders 216 Chapter 13 Power and Politics in Organizations 237 Chapter 14 Conflict in Organizations 256

PART 4 Organizational Systems 275

Chapter 15 Organization Structure and Design 275 Chapter 16 Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture 295 Chapter 17 Organizational Change 315


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Preface 22

Acknowledgments 29

About the Authors 30

PART 1 An Introduction 31

Chapter 1 WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF OB 31 Chapter Warm-up 31

Management and Organizational Behavior 32

Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 33 Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 33

Watch It—Herman Miller: Organizational Behavior 34

Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 34

Big Data 35 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 36

Psychology 36 Social Psychology 36 Sociology 37 Anthropology 37

There Are Few Absolutes in OB 37

Challenges and Opportunities for OB 38

Continuing Globalization 38 Workforce Demographics 40 Workforce Diversity 40 Social Media 40 Employee Well-Being at Work 41 Positive Work Environment 41 Ethical Behavior 42

Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 42

Overview 42 Inputs 43 Processes 43 Outcomes 44

Summary 45 Implications for Managers 45 Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale 46

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8 Contents

PART 2 Individual Differences 47

Chapter 2 ATTITUDES 47 Chapter Warm-up 47

Attitudes 47

Watch It—Gawker Media: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 49

Attitudes and Behavior 49

Job Attitudes 50

Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 50 Organizational Commitment 50 Perceived Organizational Support 50 Employee Engagement 51

Measuring Job Satisfaction 51

Approaches to Measurement 52 Measured Job Satisfaction Levels 52

What Causes Job Satisfaction? 52

Job Conditions 53 Personality 54 Pay 54 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 54

Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 55

Job Performance 55 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 55 Customer Satisfaction 55 Life Satisfaction 56

The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 56

Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 56 Understanding the Impact 58

Summary 59 Implications for Managers 59 Try It—Simulation: Attitudes & Job Satisfaction 59 Personal Inventory Assessments: Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) Scale 59

Chapter 3 EMOTIONS 60 Chapter Warm-up 60

What Are Emotions and Moods? 60

The Basic Emotions 61 Moral Emotions 62

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The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect 62 Experiencing Moods and Emotions 63 The Function of Emotions 63

Sources of Emotions and Moods 64

Personality 65 Time of Day 65 Day of the Week 65 Weather 65 Stress 67 Sleep 67 Exercise 67 Age 67 Sex 67

Emotional Labor 68

Controlling Emotional Displays 68 Emotional Dissonance and Mindfulness 69

Affective Events Theory 69

Emotional Intelligence 69

Emotion Regulation 71

Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 71 Emotion Regulation Techniques 71 Ethics of Emotion Regulation 72

Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Emotions and Moods 72

OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 72

Selection 72 Decision Making 73 Creativity 73 Motivation 73 Leadership 73 Customer Service 74 Job Attitudes 74 Deviant Workplace Behaviors 74 Safety and Injury at Work 75

Summary 75 Implications for Managers 75 Try It—Simulation: Emotions & Moods 76 Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence Assessment 76

Contents 9

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Chapter 4 PERSONALITY FACTORS 77 Chapter Warm-up 77

Personality 77

What Is Personality? 78 Personality Frameworks 79

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 79 The Big Five Personality Model 80 How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work? 81 The Dark Triad 82

Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 84

Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 84 Self-Monitoring 85 Proactive Personality 85

Personality and Situations 85

Situation Strength Theory 86 Trait Activation Theory 87

Values 88

Watch It—Honest Tea: Ethics–Company Mission and Values 88

Terminal versus Instrumental Values 88 Generational Values 89

Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 89

Person–Job Fit 89 Person–Organization Fit 90 Other Dimensions of Fit 90

Cultural Values 91

Hofstede’s Framework 91 The GLOBE Framework 92 Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the Globe Framework 92

Summary 94 Implications for Managers 94 Personal Inventory Assessments: Personality Style Indicator 94

Chapter 5 PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES 95 Chapter Warm-up 95

What Is Perception? 95

Factors That Influence Perception 96 Watch It—Orpheus Group Casting: Social Perception and Attribution 97

10 Contents

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Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others 97

Attribution Theory 97 Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 99

The Link between Perception and Individual Decision Making 100

Decision Making in Organizations 100

The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 100 Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 102

Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 104

Individual Differences 105 Organizational Constraints 106

What about Ethics in Decision Making? 106

Three Ethical Decision Criteria 107 Choosing between Criteria 107 Behavioral Ethics 108 Lying 108

Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 108

Creative Behavior 109 Causes of Creative Behavior 109 Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 111

Summary 111 Implications for Managers 111 Try It—Simulation: Perception & Individual Decision Making 112 Personal Inventory Assessments: How Creative Are You? 112

Chapter 6 VALUING DIVERSITY 113 Chapter Warm-up 113

Diversity 113

Demographic Characteristics 114 Levels of Diversity 114

Discrimination 115

Stereotype Threat 115 Discrimination in the Workplace 116

Biographical Characteristics 117

Age 117 Sex 118 Race and Ethnicity 119

Contents 11

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Disabilities 119 Hidden Disabilities 120

Other Differentiating Characteristics 121

Religion 121 Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 121 Cultural Identity 123

Watch It—Verizon: Diversity 123

Ability 123

Intellectual Abilities 123 Physical Abilities 125

Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 125

Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 126 Diversity in Groups 127 Diversity Programs 128

Summary 128 Implications for Managers 129 Try It—Simulation: Human Resources 129 Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity Scale 129

Chapter 7 BASIC MOTIVATION 130 Chapter Warm-up 130

Motivation 130

Watch It—Motivation (TWZ Role Play) 131

Early Theories of Motivation 131

Hierarchy of Needs Theory 131 Two-Factor Theory 132 McClelland’s Theory of Needs 132

Contemporary Theories of Motivation 134

Self-Determination Theory 134 Goal-Setting Theory 135

Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 138

Self-Efficacy Theory 138 Reinforcement Theory 140 Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 141 Expectancy Theory 145

Job Engagement 146

12 Contents

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Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 146 Summary 148 Implications for Managers 148 Try It—Simulation: Motivation 148 Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Motivation Indicator 149

Chapter 8 APPLIED MOTIVATION 150 Chapter Warm-up 150

Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 151

Elements of the JCM 151 Efficacy of the JCM 151 Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 152 Cultural Generalizability of the JCM 153

Using Job Redesign to Motivate Employees 153

Job Rotation 153 Relational Job Design 154

Using Alternative Work Arrangements to Motivate Employees 154

Flextime 155 Job Sharing 156 Telecommuting 157

Using Employee Involvement and Participation (EIP) to Motivate Employees 157

Cultural EIP 158 Forms of Employee Involvement Programs 158

Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 159

What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 159 How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through Variable-Pay Programs 159

Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 163

Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 163

Watch It—ZAPPOS: Motivating Employees through Company Culture 164

Summary 164 Implications for Managers 165 Try It—Simulation: Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation 165 Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Need for Team Building 165

Contents 13

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14 Contents

PART 3 Groups in Organizations 166

Chapter 9 COMMUNICATION 166 Chapter Warm-up 166

Communication 167

Functions of Communication 167 The Communication Process 168

Direction of Communication 168

Downward Communication 169 Upward Communication 169 Lateral Communication 169 Formal Small-Group Networks 170 The Grapevine 170

Modes of Communication 171

Oral Communication 171 Written Communication 172 Nonverbal Communication 172

Choice of Communication Channel 172

Channel Richness 172 Choosing Communication Methods 173 Information Security 174

Persuasive Communication 174 Automatic and Controlled Processing 174 Tailoring the Message 175

Barriers to Effective Communication 176

Filtering 176 Selective Perception 176 Information Overload 176 Emotions 177 Language 177 Silence 177 Communication Apprehension 177 Lying 178

Cultural Factors 178

Cultural Barriers 178 Cultural Context 179 A Cultural Guide 179

Watch It—Communication (TWZ Role Play) 180

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Summary 180 Implications for Managers 181 Try It—Simulation: Communication 181 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles 181

Chapter 10 BASICS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR 182 Chapter Warm-up 182

Groups and Group Identity 183

Social Identity 183 Ingroups and Outgroups 183

Stages of Group Development 184

Watch It— Managing Groups & Teams 184

Group Property 1: Roles 185

Role Perception 186 Role Expectations 186 Role Conflict 186

Group Property 2: Norms 186

Norms and Emotions 187 Norms and Conformity 187 Norms and Behavior 188 Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 188 Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 189 Norms and Culture 190

Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size 190 Group Property 3: Status 190 Group Property 4: Size 192

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property 6: Diversity 192

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 193 Group Property 6: Diversity 193

Group Decision Making 195

Groups versus the Individual 195 Groupthink 196 Groupshift or Group Polarization 197 Group Decision-Making Techniques 197

Summary 198 Implications for Managers 199 Try It—Simulation: Group Behavior 199 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communicating Supportively 199

Contents 15

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