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Step 1: Answer the following question in paragraph format, using at least 200 words.

What are the main characteristics of the sensorimotor? What revisions of Piaget s sensorimotor stage have been proposed?

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The sensorimotor is one of the four stages of cognitive development that was developed by Jean Piaget. This stage happens from the time an infant is born up until they are 2 years of age. During this time, infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions they do, and they coordinate these experiences with the physical actions. The sensorimotor stage has 6 sub-stages. The first one is simple reflexes which happens from birth to 1 month old and this is where the infant develops coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors. The second stage is first habits and primary circular reactions which happens from 1 to 4 months of age. The third stage is secondary circular reactions which happens from 4 to 8 months old. This is when infants become more interested in objects, moving and repeating actions that bring them happiness. The fourth sub-stage is coordination of secondary circular reactions. This happens from 8 to 12 months old and is when a child develops their hand-eye coordination. The fifth stage is tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity. This occurs during 12 to 18 months and is when infants experiment with new behaviors and become highly interested by things they can do to/with objects. Lastly, the sixth stage is internalization of schemes which happens during 18 to 24 months of age. At this time, infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations.

Although Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is very detailed, there are some developmentalists that do not fully agree with the sensorimotor and believe that it is not entirely correct. Rochel Gelman showed that when the child’s attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve and Gelman believes that conservation appears earlier than Piaget thought.


The sensorimotor stage is Jean Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, starting from birth until 2 years of age. In this stage, infants gain knowledge about the world by the physical actions they perform. Sensory experience is coordinated with the physical action. An infant progresses from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage. The sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: 1) simple reflexes; sensation and action are coordinated primarily through reflexive behavior 2) first habits and primary circular reactions; the infant coordinates sensation and two types of schemes; habits and primary circular reactions 3) secondary circular reactions; the infant is more object-oriented. Repeat action that bring pleasure 4) coordination of secondary circular reactions; hand-eye coordination 5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity; they experiment with new behavior, and 6) internalization of schemes; use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations.

The A-not-B Error modified Piaget’s claim that certain processes are crucial in transitioning from one stage to another. Piaget’s theory into substage 4, coordination of secondary circular reactions, is an infant’s inclination to search for a hidden object in a familiar location rather than to look for the object in a new location. Older infants are less likely to make the A-not-B error because their concept of object permanence is more complete.

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