Prof. Ruggieri, SCI 4020, Spring 2022

Name: __________

Week 3 Homework

  1. List three (3) of the hallmarks of cancer. (3 pts)
  2. Explain, in basic terms, what “sustained proliferative signaling” means. (2 pts)
  3. In __ proliferative stimulation, cancer cells themselves produce the chemical(s) that they then also respond to; a type of so-called “self-signaling.” (1 pt)
  4. Explain how elevating/increasing the number of receptor proteins displayed on the surface of a cancer cell would lead to its sustained proliferative signaling. (i.e. how are the receptors linked to sustained cell replication?) (2 pts)
  5. The Rb protein is the product of a(n) oncogene / tumor suppressor gene (circle one). (1 pt)
  6. Rb / TP53 (circle one) receives inputs exclusively from the cell’s intracellular operating systems and can trigger apoptosis. (1 pt)
  7. Explain what the concept of “contact inhibition” means and what loss of that inhibition leads to. (2 pts)
  8. What is the name of the cytoplasmic NF2 gene product? What is the main role of this protein? (3 pts)
  9. What is apoptosis? List one function of this process in embryonic development and one function of this process in adults. (3 pts)
  10. During the process of apoptosis, the targeted cell emits signals to attract __, a type of immune cell that can recognize cell parts and remove them from the body. (1 pt)
  11. Apoptosis can be induced by signals/factors originating outside of the cell (extrinsic) or from within the cell (intrinsic). Currently, the extrinsic / intrinsic (choose one) apoptotic program is more widely implicated as a barrier to cancer pathogenesis. (1 pt)
  12. List one (1) antiapoptotic regulator whose expression is often increased in cancer cells. (1 pt)
  13. List two (2) proapoptotic factors whose expression is often downregulated in cancer cells. (1 pt)
  14. Normal/healthy cells can pass through only a limited number of successive cell growth-and-division cycles. This limitation isassociated with two distinct barriers to proliferation: 1) ___ and 2) _____________. (2 pts)
  15. One of the hallmark characteristics of cancer cells is the trait of being immortalized; explain what it means if cells are immortalized. (2 pts)
  16. What are telomeres? How are telomeres different over time in normal cells versus cancer cells and how is this difference linked to being immortalized? (4 pts)
  17. What takes place during the process of angiogenesis? (1 pt)
  18. In adults, the vasculature becomes quiescent and, with the exception of wound healing and female reproductive cycling, does not continue to replicate and expand. Explain how this differs in tumors and what causes this difference? (2 pts)
  19. List two activators of angiogenesis and two inhibitors. (4 pts)
  20. Increased expression of __, a key cell-to-cell adhesion molecule, is well established as an antagonist of invasion and metastasis. (1 pt)
  21. In Grade _ tumors, the cells and tissue are somewhat abnormal and are called moderately differentiated. (1 pt)
  22. What information does a cancer’s stage provide? (2 pts)
  23. In the TNM system of cancer staging, what do the T, N, and M stand for? (3 pts)

(44 points total)

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Benefits of our college essay writing service

  • 80+ disciplines

    Buy an essay in any subject you find difficult—we’ll have a specialist in it ready

  • 4-hour deadlines

    Ask for help with your most urgent short tasks—we can complete them in 4 hours!

  • Free revision

    Get your paper revised for free if it doesn’t meet your instructions.

  • 24/7 support

    Contact us anytime if you need help with your essay

  • Custom formatting

    APA, MLA, Chicago—we can use any formatting style you need.

  • Plagiarism check

    Get a paper that’s fully original and checked for plagiarism

What the numbers say?

  • 527
    writers active
  • 9.5 out of 10
    current average quality score
  • 98.40%
    of orders delivered on time